REPORTS OF THE SELECTMEN, AND OTHER OFFICERS, OF THE TOWN OF CONCORD, FROM MARCH 3, 1856, TO MARCH 2, 1857


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REPORTS OF THE SELECTMEN, AND OTHER OFFICERS, OF THE TOWN OF CONCORD, FROM MARCH
3, 1856, TO MARCH 2, 1857.

BENJAMIN TOLMAN, PRINTER.

1857.

Table of contents

1. SELECTMEN'S REPORT.

The Selectmen herewith submit the following Report of the Receipts and
Expenditures of the town for the year 1856-7:

It will be seen by the Report, that, in the exhibit of repairs of highways, a
deficiency now exists, the same arising from the payment made for breaking out
the roads in 1856. The drifting snows of the present winter have caused an
additional expense, which will have to be provided for by an appropriation.

The note of $1000, due to the Middlesex Institution for Savings, on account of
the purchase of the Cemetery lot, was paid without any specific appropriation,
and the Selectmen recommend that the same should be raised under an
appropriation for general deficiencies.

The town voted, at the last March meeting, to purchase 300 feet of hose for
Engine No. 1. An extra appropriation for that object will be required, which the
Selectmen recommend.

They recommend to the town the appropriation of the following sums for the
ensuing year:
  • For the Support of Schools, $3000
  • Principal and Interest on Town Debt, 1960
  • Repairs of Highways, 1000
  • Support of Poor, 700
  • Repairs of Bridges, 300
  • Fire Department and purchase of hose, 600
  • Town Library, 142
  • Improvement of Public Grounds, 150
  • General Deficiencies, 1600
  • General Expenses, 1000

A committee have been chosen to report upon the probable expense of repairs of
the School-house in District No. 7, and a suitable appropriation should be made
for that purpose.

GEORGE M. BROOKS, JOEL W. WALCOTT, SAMUEL STAPLES, Selectmen of Concord.

March 2, 1857.

2. STATE OF THE TREASURY, MARCH 2, 1857.

----

RECEIPTS.

  • Balance of tax of 1853, due from A. Stacy, $67 19
  • " " of 1855, 1483 54
  • Of Commonwealth, Military Bounty, 433 50
  • " " Census and Statistics of Industry, 73 00
  • " " School Fund, 89 31
  • " " Pauper Account, 4 00
  • " Trustees Cummings and Beaton Funds, 95 94
  • " sundry persons for lots sold in Cemetery, 497 00
  • " " " " grass and wood sold in Cemetery lot, 72 99
  • Of sundry persons, donations for trees in Cemetery lot, 11 71
  • Of town of Lincoln, for District No. 2, 8 72
  • For Licenses of Circus, "380026"c., 7 50
  • " old bridge plank and benches sold, 8 87
  • " Poll taxes of 1855, and Map sold, 4 56
  • Of Selectmen, rent of Town Hall, 284 75
  • Town, County and State Tax for 1856, 14,642 44
  • ---$17,785 02

----

PAYMENTS.

  • Sundry orders on Treasury paid, $15,520 91
  • ----
  • Cash in treasury and balance due from A. Stacy, $2264 11

JOSEPH HOLBROOK, Treasurer.

March 2, 1857.

3. APPROPRIATIONS AND RECEIPTS.

----

APPROPRIATIONS.

  • For Support of Schools, $3500 00
  • " Payment of Town House debt and interest, 2020 00
  • " Building School House in Dist. No. 3, 1900 00
  • " Repairs of Highways, 1000 00
  • " General Expenses, 1400 00
  • " Support of Poor, 700 00
  • " Fire Department, 350 00
  • " Repairs of Bridges, 300 00
  • " Town Library, 150 00
  • " Improvement of Public Grounds, 150 00
  • " Payment of Interest on Cemetery debt, 120 00
  • " Purposes of Cemetery, 130 00
  • " State Tax, 1284 00
  • " County Tax, 1254 03
  • ---$14,258 03

----

RECEIPTS FROM OTHER SOURCES.

  • Overlay on Taxes, $384 41
  • Rent of Town Hall, 284 75
  • Commonwealth, Military Bounty, 433 50
  • " Census and Statistics of Industry, 73 00
  • " School Fund, 89 31
  • " Pauper Account, 4 00
  • Income of Silent Poor Donations, 178 84
  • " Cummings and Beaton Funds, 95 94
  • Sundry persons Cemetery lots, 497 00
  • " " grass "380026" wood sold in Cemetery lot, 72 99
  • Sundry donations for trees, 11 71
  • Town of Lincoln for District No. 2, 8 72
  • Licenses of Circus, "380026"c., 7 50
  • Sale of old bridge plank, benches, "380026"c., 8 87
  • " " Town Map, 1 00
  • Received for Poll Taxes of 1855, 3 56
  • ---$2155 10
  • ----
  • $16,413 13

4. EXPENDITURES.

----

SUPPORT OF SCHOOLS.

The money for the support of Schools has been apportioned among the several
Districts according to the basis established by the town in 1849, and the
following table exhibits the amount belonging to each:

  • Appropriation for 1856-7, $2800 00
  • " " High School and deficiency in Centre District, 700 00
  • Income Beaton and Cummings Donations, 95 94
  • " State School Fund, 89 31
  • Payment by Town of Lincoln to District No. 2, 8 72
  • -----$3693 97

TABLE OF DIVISION.

  • Dist. No. 1--51 per cent. and $700.00, $2222 48
  • " No. 2--8 7-12 " and $8.72, 264 95
  • " No. 3--7 3-4 " 231 35
  • " No. 4--10 2-12 " 303 50
  • " No. 5--8 1-4 " 246 29
  • " No. 6--7 1-8 " 212 70
  • " No. 7--7 1-8 " 212 70
  • ---$3693 97

----

ACCOUNT WITH THE SEVERAL DISTRICTS.

District No. 1.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $492 13
  • Appropriation, "380026"c., 2222 48
  • ---$2714 61
  • Paid Henry Chase. for teaching High School, $545 45
  • Sarah C. Buttrick, " Intermediate, 150 00
  • Susan Heard, " N. Primary, 112 50
  • Harriette Buttrick, " E. Primary, 112 50
  • Maria D. Hosmer, " W. Primary, 110 25
  • John Brown, Jr., Prudential Committee, fuel, care of rooms,
    "380026"c., 88 42
  • John Garrison, care of School-rooms, 77 00
  • Proportion of fuel, "380026"c., charged to District, 81 00
  • ---$1277 12
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $1437 49

7

District No. 2.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $261 41
  • Appropriation, "380026"c., 264 95
  • ---$526 36
  • Paid Eliza Hosmer, for teaching, $200 00
  • Thomas M. Balcolm, for fuel, 13 02
  • Darius J. Hatch, Prudential Committee, care of house, brooms,
    "380026"c., 13 75
  • ---$226 77
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $299 59
District No. 3.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $190 96
  • Appropriation, 231 35
  • ---$422 31
  • Paid Louisa B. Hunt, for teaching, $203 50
  • Marshall Miles, Prudential Committee, care of rooms, 8 50
  • J. B. Garfield, fuel, 5 00
  • Edwin Wheeler, fuel, 26 00
  • H. K. Tozier, Prudential Committee, care of house, pails, brooms,
    "380026"c., 9 80
  • ---$252 80
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $169 51
District No. 4.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $307 49
  • Appropriation, 303 50
  • ---$6110 99
  • Paid Elizabeth Parmenter, for teaching, $66 50
  • Joseph Derby, board of Miss Parmenter, 47 50
  • Joseph Derby, Jr., Prudential Committee, care of House, "380026"c., 7
    72
  • Maria Wetherbee, teaching, 115 50
  • Samuel Lees, fuel, care of room, "380026"c., 36 80
  • J. C. Richardson, his proportion of school money belonging to Acton
    for yrs. '55-6, 9 85
  • James P. Brown, fuel, 28 75
  • ---$312 62
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $298 37
District No. 5.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $110 24
  • Appropriation, 246 29
  • ---$356 53

8

  • Paid Mary H. Wood, for teaching, $72 00 $356 53
  • Ellen Farmer, " 18 00
  • James O. Seripture, " 140 00
  • Jacob B. Farmer, Prudential Committee, cutting wood, care of house,
    cleaning clock, "380026"c., 13 57
  • ---$243 57
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $112 96
District No. 6.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $185 65
  • Appropriation, 212 70
  • ---$398 35
  • Paid Kate B. West, for teaching, $90 00
  • Sarah J. Wetherbee, " 70 00
  • James Wood, for making fires, "380026"c., 5 44
  • W. Melvin, fuel, 19 96
  • H. W. Jones, P. Com., care of rooms, "380026"c., 5 59
  • Lewis Wetherbee, for brooms, washing, "380026"c., 2 25
  • ---$193 24
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $205 11
District No. 7.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $90 08
  • Appropriation, 212 70
  • ---$302 78
  • Paid Jane Hosmer, for teaching, $178 50
  • Charles H. Dakin, Prud. Committee, fuel, brooms, care of room,
    "380026"c., 18 20
  • Nathan Barrett, wood and care of rooms, 5 45
  • ---$202 15
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $100 63
  • Total balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $1637 96
  • Total Appropriation, "380026"c., 3693 97
  • ----
  • $5331 93
  • Total expenditures in all the Districts, $2708 27
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $2623 66

----

PAYMENT OF TOWN HOUSE DEBT.
  • Appropriation, $2020 00
  • Paid Middlesex Institution for Savings, 2020 00
  • ----
  • Town House Debt, January 1, 1857, $16,000 00

9

BUILDING SCHOOL HOUSE IN DISTRICT NO. 3
  • Appropriation, $1900 00
  • Paid Joseph Miles, Building Committee, $100 00
  • " " " " 1506 57
  • " " " " 300 00
  • ---$1906 57
  • ----
  • Deficiency, $6 57

----

REPAIRS OF HIGHWAYS.
  • Unexpended balance, $87 16
  • Appropriation, 1000 00
  • ---$1087 16
  • Apportioned as follows:
  • District No. 1, and balance, $291 10
  • " No. 2, " 105 00
  • " No. 3, " 131 88
  • " No. 4, " 135 66
  • " No. 5, 85 00
  • " No. 6, and balance, 170 00
  • " No. 7, " 121 52
  • " No. 8, " 47 00
  • ---$1087 16
  • Paid Highway Surveyor, District No. 1, $263 10
  • " " " " No. 2, 141 41
  • " " " " No. 3, 213 87
  • " " " " No. 4, 105 85
  • " " " " No. 5, 134 26
  • " " " " No. 6, 276 37
  • " " " " No. 7, 169 72
  • " " " " No. 8, 85 47
  • ---$1390 05
  • ----
  • Deficiency, $302 80

----

SUPPORT OF POOR.
  • Appropriation, $700 00
  • State Pauper account, 4 00
  • ---$704 00
  • Paid Overseers of Poor, $50 00
  • " " " 100 00
  • " " " 100 00
  • " " " 200 00
  • " " " 150 00
  • ---$600 00
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $104 00

2

10

SILENT POOR.
  • Income from Donations, $178 84
  • Unexpended balance last year, 11 82
  • ---$190 66M
  • Paid sundry persons as appears by Selectmen's book, 173 00
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $17 66

----

FIRE DEPARTMENT.
  • Balance in Treasury, March, 1856, $61 10
  • Appropriation, 350 00
  • ---$411 10
  • Paid George Heywood, Chief Engineer, 216 39
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $194 71

----

TOWN LIBRARY.
  • Appropriation, $150 00
  • Paid E. R. Hoar, Chairman Library Committee, 150 00

----

IMPROVEMENT OF PUBLIC GROUNDS.
  • Appropriation, $150 00
  • Paid John S. Keyes, Superintendent, 150 00

----

CEMETERY.
  • Appropriation for payment of Interest on Debt, $120 00
  • " " purposes of Cemetery, 130 00
  • Received of sundry persons for deeds of lots, 497 00
  • " " " for grass "380026" wood, 72 99
  • " " " donations for trees, 11 71
  • ---$831 70
  • Paid Deficiency last year, $436 30
  • Interest on Debt, 125 00
  • Michael Flannery, work on Cemetery, 70 74
  • Anthony Wright, " " 24 87
  • J. Holbrook, trees purchased, 36 62
  • J. Holbrook, labor and team, 50 83
  • W. Whiting, lettering and regulations, 15 00
  • for lettering tomb and moving wood, 4 00
  • ---$763 36
  • ----
  • Unexpended balance, $68 34

11

REPAIRS OF BRIDGES.
  • Appropriation, $300 00
  • Sale of old plank, 5 37
  • ---$305 37
  • Paid P. Barrett, stone "380026" labor on bridge in '55, $80 50
  • Robert Cowdin's bill for plank, 182 74
  • S. Staples, journey to Boston to purchase do., 2 70
  • Horton, Hall "380026" Co., spikes, 9 00
  • Geo. L. Prescott, plank, 6 35
  • John H. Bent, timber for bridges, 16 67
  • J. C. Richardson, work on dry bridge, 2 27
  • Hobson "380026" Cousens, work on bridges, 31 00
  • W. D. Brown, repairs of Derby Bridge, 50
  • James Wood, repairs on bridge, 4 00
  • ---$335 73
  • Deficiency, $30 36
  • State Tax, $1284 00
  • County Tax, 1254 03

----

GENERAL EXPENSES.
  • Unexpended balance, $489 75
  • Appropriation, 1400 00
  • Overlay on taxes, 384 41
  • Rent of Town Hall, 284 75
  • Commonwealth, Military Bounty, 433 50
  • " Census and Statistics Industry, 73 00
  • Licenses of Circus, "380026"c., 7 50
  • Sale of Town Map, 1 00
  • Poll Taxes of 1855, 3 56
  • Sale of old benches, 3 50
  • ----$3080 97
EXPENSES OF TOWN HOUSE.
  • Paid Geo. L. Prescott, 11 tons coal and carting, $97 50
  • John Garrison, care of School-rooms, 77 00
  • " " Hall and moving seats, 85 77
  • " " Library, "380026"c., 10 00
  • Walcott "380026" Holden, fluid, candles, "380026"c., 105 87
  • Wood, sawing and splitting, 24 50
  • Repairs on furnace, funnel, lamps, "380026"c., 17 93
  • Brooms, brushes, "380026"c., 5 17
  • ---$423 74
  • Deduct amount charged Dist. No. 1 for fuel, care rooms, "380026"c.,
    158 00
  • Leaves expense of Hall and Rooms, $265 74

12

REPAIRS OF SCHOOL HOUSES.
  • Paid John Brown, Jr., painting West Centre School-house, "380026"
    repairs in Centre Dist., $50 87
  • Joshua R. Brown, painting and repairs in Dist. No. 2., 24 72
  • Julius M. Smith, painting blinds, "380026"c., in Dist. No. 2, 15
    50
  • J. P. George, repairs in Dist. No. 5, 1 50
  • P. Whelan, stove and funnel in Dist. No. 6, 42 13
  • J. H. Dakin, repairs in Dist. No. 6, 2 25
  • P. Whelan, stove funnel, "380026"c., Dist. No. 7, 34 30
  • Nathan Barrett, repairs in Dist. No. 7, 3 88
  • ---$175 15
MISCELLANEOUS.
  • Paid Joseph Reynolds, balance salary as Supt. of Schools, $45
    00
  • Alvan Pratt, keeping weights "380026" measures, 10 00
  • Benj. Tolman, printing Town Report, "380026"c., 51 25
  • Joseph Reynolds, on acct. Liquor Agency, 26 00
  • Samuel Staples, taking census in 1856, 37 00
  • Assessors of 1855-6, taking and return- ing Statistics of Industry, 36
    00
  • Concord Artillery, amount granted by town, 100 00
  • Taxes on Town's land in Carlisle for 1855-6, 3 72
  • Concord Artillery, Military Bounty, 433 50
  • Anthony Wright, building road near Mrs. Hildrith's, 60 00
  • Richard Barrett, services as Assessor and making taxes, 90 00
  • Joseph Holbrook collecting tax of 1855, 141 94
  • " abatement on taxes, '55, 37 38
  • E. Wild, salary as Librarian to Jan. 1857, 25 00
  • Middlesex Institution for Savings, Note Cemetery Debt, 1000 00
  • C. E. Snell, lettering shelves for Library, 1 68
  • James Giles, lettering guide posts, 6 07
  • Interest on money borrowed in advance of revenue, 51 35
  • Albert Stacy, stationery for Town Officers, 20 63
  • Jonas Melvin, returns of deaths and services as Policeman, 10
    57
  • John Hosmer, damage at dry bridge, 15 00
  • Powder for 19th of April salutes, 15 00
  • Asa C. Collier, cleaning and winding Town Clock to Feb. 1, 1857, 26
    25
  • Geo. L. Prescott, services as Assessor, 47 61
  • Julius M. Smith, " " 40 00

13

  • Paid Selectmen, sundry small bills paid, 7 00
  • J. M. Billings, horse hire for Selectmen, viewing bridges, 5 00
  • Joseph Holbrook, collecting tax of 1856, 146 00
  • " services as Treasurer, 15 00
  • " posting warrants for Town Meetings, 1 00
  • " sundry abatements of taxes of 1856, 51 55
  • Geo. Heywood, recording proceedings of Town Meetings, "380026"c., 15
    00
  • do., recording and returning births, deaths, and marriages, 13
    95
  • do., express, postage, "380026"c., 4 25
  • Heman Newton, entertainment Selectmen and Assessors, 45 75
  • Benj. Tolman, printing Town Warrants, returns of burials, "380026"c.,
    16 25
  • Selectmen, making Report, 15 00
  • Jacob B. Farmer, setting 8 posts by new road, near Mrs. Hildreth's, 4
    00
  • Selectmen, perambulating town lines, 16 00
  • Samuel Staples, for selling Cemetery grass and wood on town lot at P.
    Blood's, 12 50
  • S. Staples, cash refunded for grass sold Sherman Barrett, in 1855,
    which said Barrett refused to pay, 10 00
  • ---$3150 09
  • Deficiency, $69 12

5. TABULAR STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES, From March 3,
1856, to March 2, 1857.

----

RECEIPTS.
  • Unexpended balance of appropriation, March 2, 1856, $948 91
  • Appropriation for various objects, 14,258 03
  • Receipts from other sources, 2155 10
  • ---$17362 04

----

EXPENDITURES.
  • Support of Schools, $2708 27
  • Payment of Town House debt and interest, 2020 00
  • Repairs of Highways, 1390 05
  • Building of School-house in District No. 3, 1906 57
  • Support of Poor, 600 00
  • Silent Poor, 173 00
  • Fire Department, 216 39
  • Town Library, 150 00
  • Improvement of Public Grounds, 150 00
  • Cemetery, 763 36
  • Repairs of Bridges, 335 73
  • State Tax, 1284 00
  • General Expenses, 3150 09
  • County Tax in part, 750 00
  • ---$15,597 46
  • ----
  • Unexpended balances, $1764 58

6. FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE TOWN LIBRARY COMMITTEE.

----

The Library Committee present their Report for the year ending on the first
Monday in March, 1857.

  • The amount of money received by them has been as follows:
  • The balance of last year's account, $60 00
  • The Town's appropriation for 1856, 150 00
  • Fines collected by Librarian in 1856, 8 44
  • ---$218 44
  • The amount expended has been--
  • For 147 volumes purchased, $156 05
  • For covering and binding books and paper, 7 49
  • Leaving a balance unexpended of 54 90
  • ---$218 44

The number of volumes in the Library, as stated in our last Report, was 2074 ;
to which have been added during the year, by purchase, 147 ; by donation, 29 ;
making the whole number, 2,250. No book has been lost from the Library during
the past year.

The number of ratable polls in Concord in the year 1856, was 569, and the
appropriation for the maintenance and increase of the Library, which the town is
allowed by law, and required by their contract to make this year, is
$142.25.

The Librarian, Mr. Wild, has discharged the duties of his office faithfully and
acceptably ; and his intimate acquaintance with the Library, acquired in
arranging, numbering, and entering upon the catalogue all the books which it
contains, makes his services more valuable than those of any other person would
be, whom the Committee could probably engage. Considering his compensation
inadequate, he resigned the office at the annual examination in January ; but
the Committee assumed the responsibility of agreeing with him that if he would
remain to this time, he should be paid at the rate of fifty dollars a year.
Whether the town approve this arrangement, and whether they will authorize the
Committee to continue it, is for them to determine. The Committee think it, on
the whole, reasonable and proper.

The popularity and usefulness of the Library, as a means of entertainment and
instruction to the people of the town, have suffered no diminution. It has been
our design to add steadily to its solid and

16

permanent value, as well as to supply, to a reasonable extent, the demand for new
publications. Among the additions of the past year, have been Sparks' Edition of
the Works of Franklin, in ten octavo volumes ; the twenty-five volumes, which
make our set complete, of the British Essayists ; the new volumes of Little
"380026" Brown's edition of the British Poets ; Motley's History of the Dutch
Republic ; Sulley's Memoirs ; Dr. Kane's Arctic Expedition ; Lingard's History
of England ; Hudson's Edition of Shakespeare ; Grote's History of Greece ;
Wincklemann's History of AncientArt ; and Mr. Webster's Correspondence. A
valuable addition to our set of American State Papers was presented by Mr. Simon
Brown. The Committee have subscribed on behalf of the Library, for the great
work of Prof. Agassiz on the Natural History of America, which is to be
published in ten volumes at the price of twelve dollars a volume. The work will
be illustrated in the highest style of art, and it is expected that one volume a
year can be furnished until it is completed. The first volume is expected during
the present month.

In conclusion, your Committee can but regret that the means at their command are
so limited ; and would renew their annual appeal to the liberality and public
spirit of individuals to do something to aid an institution so important to the
community.

E. R. HOAR,
R. W. EMERSON, Library
SIMON BROWN,
GEO. HEYWOOD, Committee

CONCORD, MARCH 2, 1857.

7. REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC GROUNDS.

----

During the past season, the head stones in both the old Burying Grounds, have
been carefully righted up, and firmly re-set erect. and cleansed of moss and
dirt, so as to be legible. This work. which proved greater than was anticipated,
has improved the appearance of these grounds materially, and brought to light
some older dates than were previously known to have existed.

The West Centre School House lot, has been graded, and set out with evergreen and
other trees, and a beginning made toward furnishing some shade and protection to
this school house, which, like all the other school houses in town, has great
need of shelter from sun and wind. The square in front of the Town House has
been planted with large elm and other trees, carefully set out, and securely
boxed to protect them from injury. Some objections to these trees, as
obstructions to the travel, were raised when the work was first done, but no
accident or inconvenience has as yet occurred, and if permitted to grow, they
will prove a great comfort and ornament in this sandy and dusty place.

It should be borne in mind that a full grown tree is never in the way, and if
there were more of them in our ways and public places, the town would be the
handsomer and the better.

The hearse house has been removed from the East Burying Ground to the corner of
the Cemetery, where it is much more convenient of access, and answers the
purpose of a tool house, which was much wanted. The building has been painted
and fitted up, and is in a much better condition than the hearse contained in
it, which is too shabby for decency, and ought to be exchanged for a better one
immediately.

The other work including the usual care of the several public grounds,
sufficiently appears in the following account of expenditures :
  • Paid Jonas Melvin, for work on gravestones and grounds, $38 63
  • Wm. D. Brown, for work and trees at school-house, 18 77
  • Anthony Wright, work setting out trees, "380026"c., 13 50
  • Rufus Hosmer, moving hearse house, 15 00
  • Albert Buttrick, for painting do., 13 37
  • George L. Prescott, for lumber for tree boxes, 9 43

3

18

  • Paid Moses Hobson, for work on tree boxes, 2 26
  • H. H. Buttrick, for white-washing do., 3 00
  • Samuel Staples, for lot of maple trees, 6 84
  • A. P. Gourgas, for lot of elm trees, 6 00
  • James Giles, for painting iron work, 1 75
  • Walcott "380026" Holden, for shovel and hoe, 1 33
  • ----
  • $129 88

The balance of the appropriation will be needed to complete the new entrance to
the hill ground, a contract for which has been made.

In concluding this, my eighth and last report, I may be allowed, for the first
time, a personal word. I cannot take leave of this office, which I have held
since its establishment by the town, without expressing my acknowledgments to my
fellow citizens for their cordial and cheerful support in all plans for the
improvement of their public grounds, and the unanimity of all their votes in
relation to this subject. If, in any of the works begun or finished, I have been
instrumental in adding to the beauty or usefulness of my native town, it has
been compensation more than enough for all the trouble and work of the
superintendence. In looking back to the changes that have been produced in eight
years in the appearance of the public grounds, I am proud and grateful to have
been permitted by the town to accomplish so much for its improvement. The iron
fence in front of the West Burying Ground, the removal of the engine house from
the Hill Ground, the new wall and gateway at the East Ground, the hedge at the
Battle Ground, and the shade and ornamental trees firmly rooted and growing well
on the Square in front of the county and town houses, are ornaments and
improvements that I do not believe the town would give up for many times their
cost There are further improvements that are quite as desirable, and I earnestly
hope that the town will continue the appropriation for many years to come, and
that, by other hands, it will be more judiciously and successfully expended. My
other engagements and duties will prevent my giving to it the time and care that
I should desire if I retained the office, and I have held it long enough to make
a change perhaps advantageous and desirable, and I therefore respectfully
decline a re-election.

JOHN S. KEYES, Superintendent.

Concord, March 2, 1857.

8. REPORT OF THE OVERSEERS OF THE POOR.

----

RECEIPTS.
  • Received of the Treasurer, $700 00
  • Received of State Pauper Account, 4 00
  • ---$704 00

----

EXPENDITURES.
  • Paid Deficiency, as per last Report, $15 59
  • Eliza H. Gilson, support of Mrs. Bailey, 32 00
  • Provincetown, support of Haynes' children, 61 14
  • City of Boston, for Martha Fletcher, 26 25
  • Dr. Barrett's bill for sickness of Mrs. Brown, 13 75
  • City of Lynn, for support of E. Hook, 10 00
  • Jonas Melvin, buiral Lucy Robbins "380026" child, 6 75
  • J. Hosmer, wood furnished Fatima Robbins, 5 00
  • J. Reynolds, journey expense to Cambridge, 2 00
  • J. H. Bent, " " Boston, 1 20
  • Assisting sundry persons, 1 60
  • Postage, stationery, "380026"c., 1 25
  • ---$176 53
  • EXPENSES AT THE FARM.
  • Paid Geo. L. Prescott, shingles, $26 25
  • Walcott "380026" Holden, nails, 2 37
  • Shingling barn, 5 12
  • P. Whelan, new stove, "380026"c., 20 67
  • J. Hancock Bent, boards and joist, 10 05
  • Jonas Melvin, burial fees, 6 50
  • Jas. Adams, coffin and robe for Mrs. Wright, 4 75
  • David Barnes, expense at Boston, 2 00
  • Joseph Dakin, 447 00
  • Cash on hand, 2 76
  • ---$527 47
  • ----
  • $704 00

20

  • Due Joseph Dakin, April 1, 1857, $53 00
  • Cash on hand, $2 76
  • Due from Town of Acton, burial fees of Lucy Robbins and child, 6
    75
  • ---$9 51
  • ----
  • Deficiency, $43 49

Respectfully submitted,

JABEZ REYNOLDS, Overseers
J. HANCOCK BENT, of the
CYRUS PEIRCE, Poor.

Concord, March 2, 1857.

9. MARRIAGES, BIRTHS AND DEATHS IN CONCORD, IN 1856.

----

The following statement, taken from the records, shows the marriages, births and
deaths, in Concord, for the year 1856 :

MARRIAGES.-- Whole number, 22. Of the parties 32 were inhabitants of Concord,
and 12 of other places ; 13 were born in Concord, 23 in other towns in the
State, and 8 in other places. Of the males, 20 were first marriages, 1 was a
second marriage and 1 a third. Of the females 21 were first marriages, and 1 a
second

BIRTHS.-- Whole number, 47--males, 21 ; females, 26. Of the whole number, 22
were born of Irish parents.

DEATHS.-- Whole number, 39--being 4 more than in 1855. Males, 19 ; females, 20.
Of the males, 7 were married, 11 unmarried, and 1 widower. Of the females, 3
were married, 12 unmarried, and 5 widows.

Of these 39 persons, 27 were born in Concord, 7 in other towns in the State, and
5 in other places.

Of the males over 15 years of age, there were 6 farmers, 2 lawyers, 1 carpenter
and 6 laborers.

Deaths between 90 and 100 years of age --males,0 -- females, 1
" " 80 and 90 " " " 1 " 1
" " 70 and 80 " " " 4 " 5
" " 60 and 70 " " " 2 " 1
" " 50 and 60 " " " 0 " 2
" " 40 and 50 " " " 4 " 1
" " 30 and 40 " " " 1 " 0
" " 20 and 30 " " " 2 " 1
" " 10 and 20 " " " 2 " 3
" " 1 and 5 " " " 0 " 3
" under, 1 " " " 3 " 2

Average of life, 41 7-8 years.

Deaths by Consumption, 7 Deaths by Apoplexy, 1
" " Old Age, 6 " " Hernia, 1
" " Disease of Heart, 2 " " Dropsy, 3
" " Cholera Infantum, 5 " " Dysentery, 1
" " Typhoid Fever, 2 " " Bilious Cholic, 1
" " Scarlet Fever, 1 " " Accident, 1
" " Delirium Tremens, 1 " " Child Birth, 1
" " Schirrus of Stomach, 2 " " Palsy, 1
" " Inflammation of lungs,1 " " Fever, 1
" " Still Born, 1

22

The names and ages of the persons who died in 1856 are as follows, viz:

Elisha Wheeler, 72 yrs. Mary O'Brien, 1 yr. 2 m.
Hannah M. Haynes, 6 m. 15 d. Hannah Wright, 79 yrs.
Thomas Robbins, 46 yrs. Charles W. Goodnow, 44 yrs.
John Calahan, 42 yrs. Francis Melvin, 18 yrs.
Sarah Wheeler, 78 yrs. Sarah C. Hastings, 10 yrs.
Patrick O'Neil, 22 yrs. Frances H. Wilde, 27 yrs.
Frederick Breed, 64 yrs. John Gleason, 27 yrs.
Jeanette E. Todd, 4 yrs. 6m. Lewis Wetherbee, 67 yrs.
Peter Dowd, still born, Sarah Temple, 83 yrs.
Hepsibah Jones, 70 yrs. Eliab Hayden, 31 yrs.
Sabrine Wheeler, 19 yrs. Samuel Hoar, 78 yrs.
Perez Blood, 70 yrs. Martha Robinson, 73 yrs.
Joseph Merriam, 88 yrs. 8 m. Mary A Tozier, 1 m. 8 d.
James H. Wilson, 4 d. Honora Shannon, 42 yrs.
John Henry Byron, 5 d. Lucy Lee, 90 yrs. 7 m.
Patrick Moore, 40 yrs. Elizabeth L. Brown, 1 yr. 3 m.
Eliza A. Barker, 50 yrs. Jesse S. Richardson, 5 m. 17 d.
Eliza W. Melvin, 19 yrs. Abigail Lawrence, 72 yrs.
Ann Holden, 66 yrs. 6 m. Nathan M. Wright, 73 yrs. 7 m.
Almira Lawrence, 51 yrs.

According to the United States Census of 1850, the deaths in 1856 were as 1 to
every 57 2-3.

GEO. HEYWOOD, Town Clerk.

Concord, Jan. 1, 1857.

10. ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE, AND OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC
SCHOOLS, OF CONCORD, FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL 1, 1857.

BENJAMIN TOLMAN, PRINTER.

----

1857.

REPORT OF THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE, FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL 1, 1857.

----

The undersigned, having been previously chosen by their several districts as
Prudential Committee, were, by a vote of the town at its last April meeting,
elected as the School Committee of the town.

Their first duty, under the instruction of the town, being the choice of a
Superintendent, they immediately met, and, after organizing by the choice of
John Brown, Jr., as chairman, proceeded to ballot for a Superintendent. They
made a unanimous choice of Rev. L. H. Angier for that office ; and he was
subsequently chosen as Secretary of the board.

The year, we think, has been one of general improvement in the various schools,
while harmony and good feeling have existed between the different members of the
committee and the superintendent.

The Special Committee, appointed at the March meeting, to consider the whole
subject of our schools, it is believed, will make such suggestions, and propose
such plans, as well, if adopted, most effectually remedy the evils hitherto
complained of, and furnish a more equal and satisfactory appointment of the
school money among the several districts.

4

We believe that the support of our schools should be recognized as of the first
importance, to be provided for as among the necessary expenses of
the town, and subject to no accident or contingency. And we further believe,
that, instead of the plan heretofore adopted of determining the length of the
schools by the amount of money raised, the best policy, the truest economy, and
the highest wisdom, alike would direct the reversing of that method, and that,
after determining, as nearly as possible, the best and most profitable terms of
time for the different schools to keep, we should, as a matter of course and of
necessity, raise an amount of money sufficient to support them during that time.

It seems also to be desirable, that, as far as practicable, the terms of all
schools of a similar grade should be of uniform length, and a uniform price to
be paid to the several teachers. It is understood that these views substantially
are adopted and carried out in the plan to be submitted by the committee
specially appointed to report upon this subject.

The subject of furnishing school rooms is beginning to recieve some of the
attention to which its importance entitles it. Instead of the blank and barren
surface of wood and mortar usually presented in school rooms, the eye of the
pupil should rest at every turn upon some map, diagram, or illustration of the
various subjects embraced in education, that he may thus constantly be receiving
impressions and lessons, silently and perhaps "unconsciously," but which may be
as valuable and abiding as those received in the more direct methods of
instruction.

5

In many of our schools this want is in part supplied. As we have the means and
opportunity, let us provide all these aids and embellishments, that our school
houses, which are all that the most cultivated taste could require, or the most
liberal hand could grant, may be full and complete in their furnishing, as they
are in their exterior.

The supply of our High School is still quite deficient in this respect. Two or
three maps and a globe embrace the entire catalogue of its illustrative
properties. There is a very special want of a small appropriation to supply this
school with some philisophical apparatus. If not absolutely necessary to a
correct understanding of the subjects which it illustrates, it is a very great
aid to the student, and while it gives additional interest to the study, it
makes apparent and real what might have remained vague and indefinite. We
believe the school can no more afford to do without it than the farmer or
mechanic can afford to do without his improved implements and tools. We
therefore recommend that the sum of one hundred dollars be raised by the town,
to be expended, under the direction of the General Committee, in the purchase of
apparatus for the High School.

The report of the Superintendent will indicate the particular condition of the
several schools.

JOHN BROWN, JR., DARIUS J. HATCH,
JACOB B. FARMER, Committee. H. K. TOZIER,
SAMUEL LEES, HIRAM W. JONES,
NATHAN BARRETT,

REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT.

----

TO THE SCHOOL COMMITTEE OF CONCORD :

Gentlemen, ----

As Superintendent of the Public Schools of Concord, an office which you did me
the honor to confer upon me at the commencement of your official term, I
herewith submit to you, as the statute requires, "a detailed report of the
condition" of our schools for the year ending April 1st, 1857.

The importance of the trust with which you, gentlemen, have been charged by the
town, and the responsibilities which it devolves both upon yourselves and your
Superintendent, cannot be over-estimated. Of all the subjects which come
regularly before the citizens of the town for consideration and action at their
annual meeting for the transaction of town business, there is none, whose claims
to a thorough and dispassionate deliberation and a liberal provision, are to be
compared with those which the interests of our public schools present ;
interests, in which the hundreds of our children, dependent upon these schools
for their education, are deeply concerned. Would that we might catch the
inspiration of the enthusi-

7

asm and noble purpose of the Prussian School Councillor, Dinton, who said--"I
promised God that I would look upon every Prussian peasant child as a being who
could complain of me before God, if I did not provide him the best education as
a man and a christian which it was possible for me to provide."

There is no subject of which the Commonwealth takes cognizance and over which, in
its legislative capacity, it exercises guardianship and control, of such vital
interest to the welfare of the State, as that of its Common School System. The
most voluminous and elaborate reports which are presented to the State
Legislature during its annual session, are those of the Board of Education and
of the Secretary of the Board--reports which should be in the hands of, and
carefully examined by, all school committees and teachers.

As valuable as are our Colleges and Universities, and as important and
indispensable as they are to the pursuits of knowledge in the higher branches of
learning, and as powerful as is the acknowledged influence which they exert in
maintaining and elevating the character of what are called the "learned
professions," yet we think it no exaggeration to say that in a free government
like ours, a government determined and maintained by the people, the common
school system, as it is called,--a system which, in its benign provisions for
the intellectual and moral training of the young, regards equally the child of
the poorest as the child of the richest in the community, outranks them in
importance. Free institutions, such as our country boasts and which do not exist
to the same extent and in equal diffusion in any other nation

8

on the globe, demand as a condition of their stability, growth and perpetuity,
intelligence and virtue in the people. Without the presense and constant and
controling influence of these elements in a people who make their own laws and
appoint their executors, we can look neither for wisdom in the legislation of
the state, nor faithfulness and justice in the administration of its government
and laws. And let it be remembered that our free schools, more than our Colleges
and Universities, are the sources of a nation's intelligence. In
the former, our ministers and magistrates, our lawyers and legislators, our
jurists and presidents, commenced their education. Here, many men in our
country, who have risen to eminent usefulness and an honorable distinction,
received into their minds and hearts, from the hand of the teacher in the common
school, those seeds of intelligence, wisdom and virtue, which at length ripened
into a manhood that illustrates the history of our youthful republic, and the
wisdom and comprehensiveness of its fathers in making the fountains of
intelligence as free to all as the air we breathe. What interest then, we again
ask, does the town or the state take under its supervision and guardianship
which can compare in importance with its schools? What are commerce and
railroads, revenues and tariffs, telegraphs, armies, and navies, and all the
material interests of the state and nation combined, compared with the wise
training of the intellect and heart of the people. Upon the care which this
latter interest shall receive, more than upon any which can be bestowed upon the
most important of our material interests, will the stability and peace, the
growth and grandeur of this

9

nation depend. Said Epicletus--"You will confer the greatest benefit on your
city, not by raising the roofs, but by exalting the souls of your fellow
citizens ; for it is better that great souls should live in small habitations
than that abject slaves should burrow in great houses." Had the author of this
sentiment, so just and so wise, lived in the United States in the nineteenth
century, instead of at Rome in the second, we doubt not he would have been a
warm friend and advocate of that system of education which seeks to embrace and
exalt the soul of every citizen of this great Republic.

If these considerations, extended perhaps already to an unreasonable length, by
way of introduction, are just, is not the condition and character of our public
schools a matter of the highest importance? and may we not expect it will
receive, above all other matters of common interest which will come up to be
acted upon at the annual meeting, the most careful deliberation, the wisest
suggestions, and the most liberal provisions of the town in its municipal
capacity.

When I consider the interest which the town has hitherto taken in its schools, as
manifested by the liberal and constantly increasing appropriations of money for
their maintenance, I feel assured that I shall have a patient hearing while I
proceed to give, somewhat in detail, an account of the schools for the past
year, and make such statements and suggestions in relation to them as may be
deemed necessary and proper to promote their best interests.

2

10

High School.

MR HENRY CHASE, Teacher.

The ample recommendations, upon the strength of which this gentleman was
introduced to a former committee, and by them employed to take charge of this
school, and the high commendations which he received in the last annual report
of the school, after the trial of his capabilities for a single term, have been
fully sustained by the character and results of his labors during the past year.
From the observation which frequent visits to the school, and attendance upon
two examinations have enabled us to make, we have the most entire conviction of
his ability, faithfulness, and success as a teacher, and feel no hesitation in
saying, that, in our judgement, the order and discipline of the school have
never been more satisfactory, or the instruction more thorough.

From our acquaintance with this school in former years, we were satisfied that
too many branches were undertaken at the same time, to insure that thoroughness
of study and mastery of principles on the part of the scholars, and that
attention from the teacher, which are so essential to thorough scholarship, and
to the maintenance of a high standard of excellence in the school. We entirely
concur in the views expressed by the former Superintendent in relation to this
subject.

At the commencement of the year, the number of studies was somewhat reduced,
greatly, we think, to the advantage of the school. At the commencement of the
Winter term, French, which had been studied by a large number during the Summer
term,

11

was dropped, and Arithmetic taken up in its stead, and almost the entire school
subjected to a thorough drilling in this important branch. The necessity of
devoting so much time to this study would not have existed, and the progress of
the school been retarded thereby, had those coming from the Intermediate School,
and a few from the outer districts, been qualified agreeably to the specified
requirements. This is a subject which demands special consideration, and
we.shall invite your attention to it again when we come to speak of the
condition of the Intermediate School. The High School is intended to afford the
opportunity and means to those who wish to advance beyond the elements of a good
English education ; to pursue such studies as the Languages, the higher
Mathematics, the high departments of English Grammar, Chemistry, Natural and
Mental Philosophy, "380026"c. And in order to enter it, a thorough training in
the elementary studies should be demanded in the lower schools. Let this
position be maintained by the town and the effect will be to elevate the
standard not only of the High School, but of all the schools.

At both examinations of this school, the scholars, with some few exceptions, did
themselves and their teacher much credit. The recitations in Algebra, Geometry
and Greek, at the first examination were excellent. Indeed, we marked them
perfect. We do not think the second examination equalled the first. The
recitation in Natural Philosophy, especially, fell short of our expectations.
During the Winter, there had been a good deal of irregularity in attendance ; a
circumstance always unfavorable to the

12

improvement of a school. We were sorry to learn that so many were absent from
the second examination who had been connected with the school during the Winter.
Such absence, unless for good reasons, looks suspicious, and reflects
unfavorably upon the absentees. An examination is seldom a terror to any but
delinquents.

I cannot close my remarks upon this school without noticing the fact that,
during a great part of the year, Mrs. Chase has heard several recitations a
week, in which, it is believed, she has rendered an important service to the
school, and this service has been wholly gratuitous on her part. Such an amount
of unrecompensed labor as she has performed for the school, entitles her to the
gratitude of the community.

CENTRE DISTRICT.

JOHN BROWN, JR., Prudential Committee.

Intermediate School.

This school was taught, the past year, by Miss Sarah C. Buttrick, of this town.
As Miss Buttrick entered upon her duties in this school with but a limited
experience as a teacher, and as our own experience in our official relation to
this school in former years had made us fully aware of the difficulties to be
encountered in teaching it, we had great misgivings as to her success, and many
fears that all would not be accomplished which ought to be expected from this
school. Miss Buttrick commenced her labors in the school with a good deal of
resoluteness, determined, if she accomplished nothing else, to bring it into a
quiet and orderly deportment. In this, we think her success was much

13

more marked than that of some of her predecessors. At both examinations, the
order and deportment of the school were highly satisfactory ; and such we found
to be the case, in a good degree, at our visits to it from time to time. There
was, in this particular, a very manifest improvement, which we think must be
attributed, in no small degree, to the firmness and great pains taken by the
teacher, and for which she deserves special commendation. But, in respect to the
improvement made in the different branches of study taught in this school, it
fell considerably below the standard which ought to be maintained, and which we
we have a right to look for in a school of this grade. This remark will apply
more particularly to the condition of the school during the first term. There
seemed to be a great lack of thought, of application
and of mental activity ; as if the Intermediate School were not a
place for study, but a mere stepping-stone from the Primary to the High School.
The study in which, at the first examination, we noticed the greatest
deficiences (sic), was English Grammar. With few exceptions, the
classes appeared to know but little about it. In Arithmetic, they were some
better, but far from what might have been reasonably expected.

At the second examination, on the 20th of March, the school appeared to better
advantage. There was a very marked improvement in Grammar, and in Arithmetic ;
and in Reading, the first class, especially, appeared remarkably well. More, and
special attention should be paid to Geography in this school, as but little or
no attention is given to it in the High School. On the whole, we were much
better

14

satisfied with the appearance of the school at the second examination that at the
first. The exercises evinced some waking up of thought, more application and
mental activity, and the school had made perceptible progress during the winter.

But a sense of duty compels your Superintendent to say, that, after years of
experience and observation with regard to this school, he is fully persuaded
that it has failed to attain the rank which a school of this grade ought to
maintain. It is perfectly apparent that this school does not occupy the place in
the public confidence which the other schools in the Centre District do ;
whereas it ought to be second to none in character, as it is not in importance.

Parents, in some instances--perhaps not a few--have preferred to retain their
children in the Primary Schools to sending them to the Intermediate, after they
were qualified to enter the latter ; or if their children entered it, they have
seemed disposed to rush them through with the utmost possible speed into the
High School ; an evil which, if not checked, must have a depressing
influence--and operate most unfavorably upon the character of the High School.
And some have chosen to fit their children for promotion to the High School
elsewhere.

The rank of the Intermediate School is that which belongs to what are called
Grammar Schools. Now, it is expected and should be insisted upon, that, in these
schools, a complete and thorough knowledge of what are called the elementary
studies, should be acquired before a scholar can be promoted to the High School.
Let it be understood that he shall do something more than "go over" these
studies ; that

15

all who enter the Intermediate School will be required, before they can be
promoted to the High, to have a thorough knowledge of the principles of, and be
able to master anything in, the Common School Arithmetic ; that they have a good
knowledge of English Grammar and Geography. Let this be laid down as a rule, and
strictly adhered to, and it will not be long before we shall witness its
beneficial effects, not only in the Intermediate, but also in the High School.
The work of the Intermediate School should be done there, and not in the High
School.

In order that these results may be reached, I am also persuaded that we must have
a teacher for the Intermediate School of larger experience, higher
qualifications, and a more thorough disciplinarian, than any we have had there
for years. This remark is not intended to disparage any one of those teachers. A
teacher may succeed very well in one school but not possess the requisite
qualifications for another. And our Intermediate School demands qualifications
of a high order. Schools of this grade in larger towns are, I believe, for the
most part, taught by masters. But, as our school is not as large as those
generally are, I believe a female teacher can be found of large experience, and
qualified in all other respects to do the work which the interests of this
school require. If such a teacher cannot be obtained at the present rate of
wages, let the compensation be increased sufficiently to secure the services of
the right person.

I have dwelt at greater length in my remarks upon this school than I shall upon
any other, because I regard its condition as demanding more attention

16

than that of any other. I have pointed out what I consider the evil, and have
suggested what seems to be the remedy. Let something be done to elevate the
character of the Intermediate School. We pass to the

PRIMARY SCHOOLS.

----

North Centre.

The teacher of this school, Miss Susan Heard, of Wayland, devoted herself with
faithfulness to its interests, and her pupils, made very commendable progress in
their studies. In the exercises of the second examination there was a marked
improvement upon the first. In Reading, Spelling, Arithmetic, Geography and
History, several of the classes did themselves great credit. If Miss Heard had
united a little more firmness with her amiable disposition and manner, in
maintaining order, we think the school would have appeared to still better
advantage. This deficiency, however, was not apparent at the last examination.
We were much pleased with the neat appearance of the children and of the school
room, and were gratified also to see so many of the parents and friends of the
children present to witness their exercises.

East Centre.

This school was taught the first term by Miss Harriet Buttrick, who had taught
it in former years with a good degree of success. The exercises at the
examination in November, did not show that degree of improvement which we had
expected to witness.

During the Winter term, the school was under the care of Miss Eliza Hosmer. At
our occasional visits

17

to the schools, we did not see that quiet and order which ought to be
maintained. At the examination of the school in March the deportment of the
children was entirely satisfactory, and the progress they had made in their
studies highly commendable. In Spelling, Arithmetic and Geography, some of the
classes appeared remarkably well. We think this school has suffered from the
frequent changing of teachers.

West Centre.

For the last two years, this school has been under the instruction of Miss Maria
D. Hosmer. We congratulate the children--and we congratulate the parents
also--on their having been so long favored with the valuable services of this
accomplished and successful teacher. It has always given us pleasure to visit
her school. The perfect neatness of the school-room, the good order,
sprightliness, promptness and thoroughness of the children in their recitations,
their excellent singing, "380026"c., realize our idea of a model school more
fully than any other of its grade with which we are acquainted. Each examination
showed great faithfulness on the part of the teacher in her efforts for the
intellectual and moral training of the children committed to her care, and the
highest satisfaction was manifested with regard to the appearance of the school
by the throng of visitors present.

District No. 2.

D. J. Hatch, Prudential Committee.

This school was taught during the Summer term by Miss Eliza Hosmer. In most of
the studies, the school made commendable progress during the

3

18

first term, and the exercises of the examination at its close, particularly in
Arithmetic, Algebra and Geography, showed a good degree of application on the
part of the scholars, and accuracy on the part of their teacher.

Miss Carrie H. Pratt, of this town, who taught the school the Winter term,
entered upon her duties with the determination, apparently, to do her best for
its welfare. In consequence of sickness among the children, and severe weather,
the school was suspended for a week or more, and when examined, at the close of
the term, it did not appear to have made that improvement which we had witnessed
on former occasions.

District No. 3.

H. K. TOZIER, Prudential Committee.

This school, which was taught the previous Winter by Miss Louisa B. Hunt, was
continued under her instruction till the close of the Summer term. At the
examination in November, the scholars, for the most part, showed that they had
applied themselves with commendable diligence to their studies, and that they
had been thoroughly taught. The school was not as quiet and orderly as it should
be. This was a noticeable deficiency. A little more energy and firmness would
add to the qualifications which Miss Hunt already possesses for a good teacher.

The school during the Winter term was taught by Miss M. E. Parmenter of
Marlborough, who labored faithfully, and with much success, for its welfare.
There was a marked improvement in the quiet and good order of the school. The
Winter term closed the 20th of March. We can truly say that, at no

19

previous examination of this school, which we have attended, has its appearance,
in all respects, been more satisfactory. The exercises did the scholars great
credit, and also their teacher, who, as I am informed, was immediately engaged
to take the school the next term. There were too many studies pursued in the
school for its highest improvement.

District No. 4.

SAMUEL LEES, Prudential Committee.

Miss Maria Wetherbee, who taught this school during the Summer term, labored with
diligence and fidelity for the good of the school, and was quite successful. It
was evident from the exercises of the examination, at the close of the term,
that most of the scholars had made very good improvement. Their deportment was
excellent.

The school, during the Winter term, was under the charge of Miss Charlotte A.
Litchfield, of Southbridge. Miss Litchfield applied herself to her work with
great diligence and zeal. She appeared to take a deep interest in the welfare of
all her pupils. But it was not long before the unruly spirit, which, in former
years, had disturbed the peace of the school, and added greatly to the labor of
governing and teaching it, began to reveal itself. The teacher, though actuated
by the kindest feelings, and exercising great forbearance, and, at first, trying
the effect of mild measures, was determined, at all events, to be mistress of
the school ; and when occasion called for it, she administered such punishment
as she deemed necessary for the maintenance of good order. At length, certain
boys, who had

20

heretofore occasioned much trouble to teachers, proving themselves incorrigible,
were dimissed from the school--no new thing in this district. But,
notwithstanding these troubles, and gross misrepresentations calculated to
embarrass the teacher and injure the school, it was carried successfully through
; and the exercises of the examination on the 27th of March elicited high
commendation. The performances of three classes in Arithmetic, showing accuracy
in teaching, and a thorough knowledge and ready application of rules and
principles, have not been surpassed by any other school in town. The deportment
of the scholars was unexceptionable. We think the teacher labored for her school
with conscientious fidelity and was greatly beloved by her pupils. Before the
school closed, she had the offer of it for the ensuing term.

It is with deep regret that we have felt obliged to notice evils in this school
seriously effecting its interests, of which the School Reports for several years
past have made mention. One or two vicious or unruly boys in a school may do
much to interfere with the success of the most accomplished instructor ; and if
the parents and guardians of such children will no co-operate with the teacher
in the exercise of a wholesome discipline, and such children cannot be
restrained from damaging the interests of the school, they should be excluded
from its privileges.

District No. 5,

JACOB B. FARMER, Prudential Committee.

Miss Mary H. Wood took charge of this school for the Summer term. Several of the
classes appeared

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very well at the examination, and their improvement, we doubt not, would have
been still greater had not the labors of their teacher been interrupted for
awhile by sickness.

The school, during the winter term, was taught by Mr. James O. Scripture, a
member of Dartmouth College. Mr. Scripture is a fine scholar, and appeared to
take a deep interest in the welfare of his school. Those studying the higher
branches, Algebra, Geometry and Trigonometry, made very great improvement. Those
in the school less advanced--and they compromised the majority--did not make as
good progress as the others.

Mr. Scripture's scholars appeared to be attached to him ; and, as an additional
evidence of the interest which he took in their welfare, it gives us pleasure to
state that he established and maintained a weekly exercise in the evening for
the study of the Bible. This was attended by nearly all of the members of the
school, who appeared to take a lively interest in the exercise, and were, we
believe, greatly profited by it. Such an evidence of a teacher's interest in the
moral welfare of his pupils is worthy of high commendation.

District No. 6.

LEWIS WETHERBEE, Prudential Committee.

Mr. Wetherbee died in the autumn, and Mr. Hiram W. Jones was appointed by the
District to fill his place.

The school, during the Summer term, was under the care of Miss Sarah Jane
Wetherbee, who was faithful to her trust and did well for the School,

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as was evident from the exercises of the examination at its close in September.
The school made great improvement, considering the time it kept, which was not
so long by several weeks as most of the schools in town.

At the commencement of the Winter term, the school passed into the hands of Miss
Charlotte Gorham, of Billerica. Miss Gorham gained the confidence and affections
of her pupils, and under her instructions, they made good progress in their
studies. The writing books in this school showed a greater degree of improvement
in this branch than we noticed in any other school in town. At the close of the
examination, the numerous visitors were entertained by several speeches, well
delivered. Miss Gorham gave very general satisfaction. If she could add a little
more energy to her amiable disposition and modest manner, we think it would tend
to increase her usefulness as a teacher.

District No. 7.

NATHAN BARRETT, Prudential Committee,

This school, during the year, was taught by Miss Jane Hosmer, and did well under
her care. The improvement evinced at the first examination was highly
commendable. One class in Reading, several in Arithmetic, and one in Geography,
appeared remarkably well. We do not think the improvement of the second term
equalled that of the first. We congratulate the children of this District on the
prospect of having a better school-room sometime during the year.

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I have thus, in compliance with the statute, made "a detailed report of the
several Public Schools" in town. I have already occupied more space than I
intended, and will therefore conclude with a very few "suggestions."

School Registers.

In a few of the Registers, we have detected errors and deficiences which show a
want of strict attention and accuracy in keeping them. The Register must be
"properly filled up and completed, and be deposited with the School Committee,
or with such person as they may designate to receive it," before a "teacher is
entitled to receive any payment for his or her services."

Books.

But few changes have been made in school books the past year. Greenleaf's
National Arithmetic has been introduced into the High School; and we think it
would be an advantage to the schools throughout the town to substitute this, or
Greenleaf's Common School Arithmetic, in place of Adams'.

Female Teachers.

Our observations in the schools, in years past, had led us to adopt the opinion,
that their interest, with the exception of the High School, would be best
promoted by employing well qualified female teachers. Our experience the past
year has tended only to confirm this opinion.

In the last Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board of Education, he
remarks--"There has been a growing and well-grounded belief that the training of
children in the primary and common district

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schools may be best confided to females." We think that all the outer districts
of the town may obtain female teachers equal to the wants of their schools for
from thirty to fifty dollars a term less than it would cost to employ a man ;
and that the improvement of the largest number in the schools would be best
advanced by so doing. And this leads us to remark that the

Character and Qualifications of Teachers

Are if the very first importance, and should be so regarded by all whose duty it
is to engage them. The statute makes it obligatory upon the Prudential Committee
"to ascertain whatever, by diligent and careful inquiry, he can respecting the
moral character of the candidate he presents, his previous history, and his
success as a teacher, if he has ever taught school before, and what means he has
taken to qualify himself for teaching." The neglect of the duty here enjoined
may sometimes place the Committee, to whom the candidate for examination is
presented, in a very delicate and trying position. Let this hint suffice.

The statute expressly says--"It shall be the duty of all Preceptors and Teachers
of Academies, and all other instructors of youth, to exert their best endeavors
to impress on the minds of children and youth committed to their care and
instruction, the principles of piety, justice and a sacred regard to truth, love
to their country, humanity, and universal benevolence," "380026"c. Hence, it is
evident that the greatest care should be exercised in selecting teachers, and
that a great responsibility rests upon the Prudential, as well as
the Superintending Committee.

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Thanking you, gentlemen, for your courtesy and counsel in our official
relations, and congratulating you and the town upon the encouraging prospects of
our schools, and devoutly recognizing the favor of a benign Providence towards
them, I submit this report.

Respectfully,

L. H. ANGIER,

Superintendent of Public Schools.

NAMES OF TEACHERS. No. of the School. Whole No. SUMMER WINTER. Average Attendance. SUMMER. WINTER. Whole No. of Scholars. No. Between 5 and 15. Wages per Month. SUMMER. WINTER.
Henry Chase, High. 49 55 41 50 55 29 $800 per year
Sarah C. Buttrick, Inter. 55 42 37 132-135 36 33-80 55 53 $24 $24
Susan Heard, N.C. 43 45 39 36 45 40 $18 $18
Harriette Buttrick, Eliza Hosmer. E.C. 43 40 40 33 43 34 $18 $18
Maria D. Hosmer, W.C. 79 56 53 1-2 45 7-10 79 70 $18 $18
Eliza Hosmer, Carrie Hayden Pratt, No. 2. 22 24 17 23 24 24 $22 $20
Louisa B. Hunt, M.F. Parmenter, No. 3. 29 23 20 2-5 19 1-5 29 22 $22 $22
Maria Wetherbee, Charlotte A. Litchfield. No. 4. 41 43 29 7-80 30 23-83 43 30 $21 $26
Mary H. Wood, James O. Scripture. No. 5. 22 26 13 20 26 21 $18 $40
Sarah J. Wetherbee, Charlotte Gorham, No. 6. 21 32 16 9-82 29 32 25 $19 $24
Jane Hosmer, No. 7. 18 19 13 13 19 12 $18 $24

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Various.
Date: 2007
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